Science is a systematic body of knowledge about a specific field of study that contains general facts which explain a phenomenon. It establishes cause and effect relationship between two or more variables and underlines the principles governing their relationship. These principles are developed through the scientific method of observation and verification through testing.
Science is characterized by the following main features:
- Universally acceptance principles - Scientific principles represents basic truth about a particular field of inquiry. These principles may be applied in all situations, at all times & all places. E.g. - the law of gravitation can be applied in all countries irrespective of the time. Management also contains some fundamental principles which can be applied universally like the Principle of Unity of Command i.e. one man, one boss. This principle applies to all types of organizations - business or nonbusiness.
- Experimentation & Observation - Scientific principles are derived through scientific investigation & researching i.e. they are based on logic. E.g. the principle that the earth goes around the sun has been scientifically proved. Management principles are also based on scientific inquiry & observation and not only on the opinion of Henry Fayol. They have been developed through experiments & practical experiences of a large no. of managers. E.g. it is observed that fair remuneration to personal helps in creating a satisfied workforce.
- Cause & Effect Relationship - Principles of science lay down cause and effect relationships between various variables. E.g. when metals are heated, they are expanded. The cause is heating & the result is expansion. The same is true for management, therefore it also establishes a cause and effect relationship. E.g. lack of parity (balance) between authority & responsibility will lead to ineffectiveness. If you know the cause i.e. lack of balance, the effect can be ascertained easily i.e. ineffectiveness. Similarly, if workers are given bonuses, fair wages they will work hard but when not treated in a fair and just manner, reduces the productivity of an organization.
- Test of Validity & Predictability - Validity of scientific principles can be tested at any time or any number of times i.e. they stand the test of time. Each time these tests will give the same result. Moreover,
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