What is the basic difference between published data sources and embedded data sources in Tableau

The difference between published data source and embedded data source is that, Published data source: It contains connection information that is independent of any workbook and can be used by multiple workbooks. Embedded data source: It contains connection information and is associated with a workbook.

Standardization of data

Parameters Published data source Embedded data source
Standardization of data Users can have a single version of truth thus it avoids data proliferation Every embedded data source has a separate connection to the data thus every workbook tends to have a different interpretation of the same data causing data proliferation.
Sharing Can be shared across its users and every user will have access to the same data The scope of the data is restricted only to the workbook.
Refresh Schedule Requires a single refresh schedule to be enabled on the extract to have the updated data in all workbooks To have updated and fresh data in an embedded workbook each workbook requires a separate refresh schedule.
Accessibility A person who consumes data may not be aware of the complete data because it is a shared connection. Anyone authorised user can make changes to the data which will reflect in the workbook. This might cause some complication in terms of accessibility. Every user maintains an individual connection to the data hence they are aware of the complete data that will exist within the workbook inclusive of the changes made that retains only within a specific connection
Data ownership Maintaining ownership of data is difficult. Any user who has editor privilege can edit the data. Hence, extra caution is essential while defining user roles. It promotes complete ownership of the data as it eliminates the data being liable to changes by others with connected workbooks.
Updating data With published source, the changes we make are reflected on all the workbooks that are connected to it If there are multiple workbooks that access the same data, updating data becomes a tedious process as it must be updated individually in all the workbooks

Embedded data sources add additional load on the server when each workbook has separate refresh schedules. For scenarios where performance is the priority, it is better to connect the workbook to a published data source. Thus, from a performance standpoint, a published source always delivers optimal performance on the server.