What is data normalization and why we need it?

I felt this one would be important to highlight. Data normalization is a very important preprocessing step, used to rescale values to fit in a specific range to assure better convergence during backpropagation. In general, it boils down to subtracting the mean of each data point and dividing by its standard deviation. If we don’t do this then some of the features (those with high magnitude) will be weighted more in the cost function (if a higher-magnitude feature changes by 1%, then that change is pretty big, but for smaller features it’s quite insignificant). The data normalization makes all features weighted equally.