Cryptography is a method of protecting information and communications through the use of codes, so that only those for whom the information is intended can read and process it.
In computer science, cryptography refers to secure information and communication techniques derived from mathematical concepts and a set of rule-based calculations called algorithms, to transform messages in ways that are hard to decipher. These deterministic algorithms are used for cryptographic key generation, digital signing, verification to protect data privacy, web browsing on the internet and confidential communications such as credit card transactions and email.
Cryptography is closely related to the disciplines of [cryptolog It includes techniques such as microdots, merging words with images and other ways to hide information in storage or transit. However, in today’s computer-centric world, cryptography is most often associated with scrambling [plaintext] (ordinary text, sometimes referred to as cleartext) into [ciphertext](a process called [encryption, then back again (known as decryption). Individuals who practice this field are known as cryptographers.