What are dependent and independent variables in machine learning?

Dependent variables are nothing but the variable which holds the phenomena which we are studying.

Independent variables are the ones which through we are trying to explain the value or effect of the output variable (dependent variable) by creating a relationship between an independent and dependent variable.

In mathematics, this is generally explained with a formula



x= independent variable

y= dependent variable

This means any changes in x will cause a change in the value of y. The change can be negative or positive. This is just an association but not causality.