The relational model was first delineated in a 1970 paper by Edgar F. Codd. One of the first commercial programming languages related to the model, SQL, was developed shortly after at IBM. For some time, SQL was the most widely used database language, adopted as an ANSI standard in 1986 and in ISO a year later.
SQL is composed of four sublanguages, each with a different scope.
DQL: The data query language (DQL) is the most familiar and is used to run queries on databases and extract information from stored data. For example, selecting and returning the maximum value in a column.
DDL: A data definition language (DDL) is used to codify a database’s particular structures and schemas. Creating a table or defining data types is an example.
DCL: A data control language (DCL) defines access, authorizations, and permissions for users and processes accessing the database, including granting administrator privileges, or restricting users to read-only privileges only.
DML: And finally, a data manipulation language (DML) is used to make modifications on existing components of a database, like inserting records, updating values in cells, or deleting data.
Swedish company MySQL AB first released MySQL in 1995. Like much of the database software which followed the initial rise of relational systems, MySQL is simply an extension of the original SQL standard, adding more features, support, procedural programming, control-flow mechanisms, and more.
The cloud and the future of MySQL
MySQL was originally envisioned to manage massive databases, faster than existing database software. Used in demanding operational, transactional, and production environments for decades, MySQL evolved alongside the move of computation and storage into the cloud.
Though typically installed on individual machines, MySQL now includes deep support for distributed applications and inclusion in most cloud data platforms.
Relative to many data storage and processing solutions on the market today, MySQL is an older technology, but it shows no signs of flagging in either popularity or utility. In fact, MySQL has enjoyed a recent resurgence over even more specialized modern storage systems, due to its speed, reliability, ease of use, and wide compatibility.