Hello Everyone,

Let us consider the following problem to understand Segment Trees.

We have an array arr[0 . . . n-1]. We should be able to

**1** Find the sum of elements from index l to r where 0 <= l <= r <= n-1

**2** Change value of a specified element of the array to a new value x. We need to do arr[i] = x where 0 <= i <= n-1.

A **simple solution** is to run a loop from l to r and calculate the sum of elements in the given range. To update a value, simply do arr[i] = x. The first operation takes O(n) time and the second operation takes O(1) time.

**Another solution** is to create another array and store sum from start to i at the ith index in this array. The sum of a given range can now be calculated in O(1) time, but update operation takes O(n) time now. This works well if the number of query operations is large and very few updates.

What if the number of query and updates are equal? **Can we perform both the operations in O(log n) time once given the array?** We can use a Segment Tree to do both operations in O(Logn) time.

**Representation of Segment trees**

**1.** Leaf Nodes are the elements of the input array.

**2.** Each internal node represents some merging of the leaf nodes. The merging may be different for different problems. For this problem, merging is sum of leaves under a node.

**Query for Sum of given range**

Once the tree is constructed, how to get the sum using the constructed segment tree. The following is the algorithm to get the sum of elements.

int getSum(node, l, r) { if the range of the node is within l and r return value in the node else if the range of the node is completely outside l and r return 0 else return getSum(node’s left child, l, r) + getSum(node’s right child, l, r) }

**Update a value**

Like tree construction and query operations, the update can also be done recursively. We are given an index which needs to be updated. Let *diff* be the value to be added. We start from the root of the segment tree and add *diff* to all nodes which have given index in their range. If a node doesn’t have a given index in its range, we don’t make any changes to that node.

**Implementation:**

Following is the implementation of segment tree. The program implements construction of segment tree for any given array. It also implements query and update operations.

`// C++ program to show segment tree operations like construction, query`

`// and update`

`#include <bits/stdc++.h>`

`using`

`namespace`

`std;`

`// A utility function to get the middle index from corner indexes.`

`int`

`getMid(`

`int`

`s, `

`int`

`e) { `

`return`

`s + (e -s)/2; }`

`/* A recursive function to get the sum of values in the given range`

` `

`of the array. The following are parameters for this function.`

` `

`st --> Pointer to segment tree`

` `

`si --> Index of current node in the segment tree. Initially`

` `

`0 is passed as root is always at index 0`

` `

`ss & se --> Starting and ending indexes of the segment represented`

` `

`by current node, i.e., st[si]`

` `

`qs & qe --> Starting and ending indexes of query range */`

`int`

`getSumUtil(`

`int`

`*st, `

`int`

`ss, `

`int`

`se, `

`int`

`qs, `

`int`

`qe, `

`int`

`si)`

`{`

` `

`// If segment of this node is a part of given range, then return`

` `

`// the sum of the segment`

` `

`if`

`(qs <= ss && qe >= se)`

` `

`return`

`st[si];`

` `

`// If segment of this node is outside the given range`

` `

`if`

`(se < qs || ss > qe)`

` `

`return`

`0;`

` `

`// If a part of this segment overlaps with the given range`

` `

`int`

`mid = getMid(ss, se);`

` `

`return`

`getSumUtil(st, ss, mid, qs, qe, 2*si+1) +`

` `

`getSumUtil(st, mid+1, se, qs, qe, 2*si+2);`

`}`

`/* A recursive function to update the nodes which have the given`

`index in their range. The following are parameters`

` `

`st, si, ss and se are same as getSumUtil()`

` `

`i --> index of the element to be updated. This index is`

` `

`in the input array.`

`diff --> Value to be added to all nodes which have i in range */`

`void`

`updateValueUtil(`

`int`

`*st, `

`int`

`ss, `

`int`

`se, `

`int`

`i, `

`int`

`diff, `

`int`

`si)`

`{`

` `

`// Base Case: If the input index lies outside the range of`

` `

`// this segment`

` `

`if`

`(i < ss || i > se)`

` `

`return`

`;`

` `

`// If the input index is in range of this node, then update`

` `

`// the value of the node and its children`

` `

`st[si] = st[si] + diff;`

` `

`if`

`(se != ss)`

` `

`{`

` `

`int`

`mid = getMid(ss, se);`

` `

`updateValueUtil(st, ss, mid, i, diff, 2*si + 1);`

` `

`updateValueUtil(st, mid+1, se, i, diff, 2*si + 2);`

` `

`}`

`}`

`// The function to update a value in input array and segment tree.`

`// It uses updateValueUtil() to update the value in segment tree`

`void`

`updateValue(`

`int`

`arr[], `

`int`

`*st, `

`int`

`n, `

`int`

`i, `

`int`

`new_val)`

`{`

` `

`// Check for erroneous input index`

` `

`if`

`(i < 0 || i > n-1)`

` `

`{`

` `

`cout<<`

`"Invalid Input"`

`;`

` `

`return`

`;`

` `

`}`

` `

`// Get the difference between new value and old value`

` `

`int`

`diff = new_val - arr[i];`

` `

`// Update the value in array`

` `

`arr[i] = new_val;`

` `

`// Update the values of nodes in segment tree`

` `

`updateValueUtil(st, 0, n-1, i, diff, 0);`

`}`

`// Return sum of elements in range from index qs (quey start)`

`// to qe (query end). It mainly uses getSumUtil()`

`int`

`getSum(`

`int`

`*st, `

`int`

`n, `

`int`

`qs, `

`int`

`qe)`

`{`

` `

`// Check for erroneous input values`

` `

`if`

`(qs < 0 || qe > n-1 || qs > qe)`

` `

`{`

` `

`cout<<`

`"Invalid Input"`

`;`

` `

`return`

`-1;`

` `

`}`

` `

`return`

`getSumUtil(st, 0, n-1, qs, qe, 0);`

`}`

`// A recursive function that constructs Segment Tree for array[ss..se].`

`// si is index of current node in segment tree st`

`int`

`constructSTUtil(`

`int`

`arr[], `

`int`

`ss, `

`int`

`se, `

`int`

`*st, `

`int`

`si)`

`{`

` `

`// If there is one element in array, store it in current node of`

` `

`// segment tree and return`

` `

`if`

`(ss == se)`

` `

`{`

` `

`st[si] = arr[ss];`

` `

`return`

`arr[ss];`

` `

`}`

` `

`// If there are more than one elements, then recur for left and`

` `

`// right subtrees and store the sum of values in this node`

` `

`int`

`mid = getMid(ss, se);`

` `

`st[si] = constructSTUtil(arr, ss, mid, st, si*2+1) +`

` `

`constructSTUtil(arr, mid+1, se, st, si*2+2);`

` `

`return`

`st[si];`

`}`

`/* Function to construct segment tree from given array. This function`

`allocates memory for segment tree and calls constructSTUtil() to`

`fill the allocated memory */`

`int`

`*constructST(`

`int`

`arr[], `

`int`

`n)`

`{`

` `

`// Allocate memory for the segment tree`

` `

`//Height of segment tree`

` `

`int`

`x = (`

`int`

`)(`

`ceil`

`(log2(n)));`

` `

`//Maximum size of segment tree`

` `

`int`

`max_size = 2*(`

`int`

`)`

`pow`

`(2, x) - 1;`

` `

`// Allocate memory`

` `

`int`

`*st = `

`new`

`int`

`[max_size];`

` `

`// Fill the allocated memory st`

` `

`constructSTUtil(arr, 0, n-1, st, 0);`

` `

`// Return the constructed segment tree`

` `

`return`

`st;`

`}`

`// Driver program to test above functions`

`int`

`main()`

`{`

` `

`int`

`arr[] = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11};`

` `

`int`

`n = `

`sizeof`

`(arr)/`

`sizeof`

`(arr[0]);`

` `

`// Build segment tree from given array`

` `

`int`

`*st = constructST(arr, n);`

` `

`// Print sum of values in array from index 1 to 3`

` `

`cout<<`

`"Sum of values in given range = "`

`<<getSum(st, n, 1, 3)<<endl;`

` `

`// Update: set arr[1] = 10 and update corresponding`

` `

`// segment tree nodes`

` `

`updateValue(arr, st, n, 1, 10);`

` `

`// Find sum after the value is updated`

` `

`cout<<`

`"Updated sum of values in given range = "`

` `

`<<getSum(st, n, 1, 3)<<endl;`

` `

`return`

`0;`

`}`

**Output:**

Sum of values in given range = 15 Updated sum of values in given range = 22