Let’s understand it using an example. Below I have a training data set of weather and corresponding target variable ‘Play’ (suggesting possibilities of playing). Now, we need to classify whether players will play or not based on weather condition. Let’s follow the below steps to perform it.
Step 1: Convert the data set into a frequency table
Step 2: Create Likelihood table by finding the probabilities like Overcast probability = 0.29 and probability of playing is 0.64.
Step 3: Now, use [Naive Bayesian] equation to calculate the posterior probability for each class. The class with the highest posterior probability is the outcome of prediction.
Problem: Players will play if weather is sunny. Is this statement is correct?
We can solve it using above discussed method of posterior probability.
P(Yes | Sunny) = P( Sunny | Yes) * P(Yes) / P (Sunny)
Here we have P (Sunny |Yes) = 3/9 = 0.33, P(Sunny) = 5/14 = 0.36, P( Yes)= 9/14 = 0.64
Now, P (Yes | Sunny) = 0.33 * 0.64 / 0.36 = 0.60, which has higher probability.