Explain Scheduling Algorithms in detail?

A CPU scheduling algorithm is used to determine which process will use CPU for execution and which processes to hold or remove from execution. The main goal or objective of CPU scheduling algorithms is to make sure that the CPU is never in an idle state, meaning that the OS has at least one of the processes ready for execution among the available processes in the ready queue.

Preemptive Scheduling Algorithms

In these algorithms, processes are assigned with a priority. Whenever a high-priority process comes in, the lower-priority process which has occupied the CPU is preempted. That is, it releases the CPU, and the high-priority process takes the CPU for its execution.

Non-Preemptive Scheduling Algorithms

In these algorithms, we cannot preempt the process. That is, once a process is running in CPU, it will release it either by context switching or terminating. Often, these are the types of algorithms that can be used because of the limitation of the hardware.

The Types:

  1. First Come First Serve is the easiest and simplest CPU scheduling algorithm to implement. In this type of scheduling algorithm, the CPU is first allocated to the process which requests the CPU first. That means the process with minimal arrival time will be executed first by the CPU. It is a non-preemptive scheduling algorithm as the priority of processes does not matter, and they are executed in the manner they arrive in front of the CPU. This scheduling algorithm is implemented with a FIFO(First In First Out) queue.
  2. Shortest Job First is a non-preemptive scheduling algorithm in which the process with the shortest burst or completion time is executed first by the CPU. That means the lesser the execution time, the sooner the process will get the CPU. In this scheduling algorithm, the arrival time of the processes must be the same, and the processor must be aware of the burst time of all the processes in advance. If two processes have the same burst time, then First Come First Serve (FCFS) scheduling is used to break the tie.
  3. The Round Robin algorithm is related to the First Come First Serve (FCFS) technique but implemented using a preemptive policy. In this scheduling algorithm, processes are executed cyclically, and each process is allocated a small amount of time called time slice or time quantum. The ready queue of the processes is implemented using the circular queue technique in which the CPU is allocated to each process for the given time quantum and then added back to the ready queue to wait for its next turn. If the process completes its execution within the given quantum of time, then it will be preempted, and other processes will execute for the given period of time. But if the process is not completely executed within the given time quantum, then it will again be added to the ready queue and will wait for its turn to complete its execution.
  4. Shortest Remaining Time First (SRTF) scheduling algorithm is basically a preemptive mode of the Shortest Job First (SJF) algorithm in which jobs are scheduled according to the shortest remaining time. In this scheduling technique, the process with the shortest burst time is executed first by the CPU, but the arrival time of all processes need not be the same. If another process with the shortest burst time arrives, then the current process will be preempted, and a newer ready job will be executed first.