## Matrix operations

In R, we can perform the mathematical operations on a matrix such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc. For performing the mathematical operation on the matrix, it is required that both the matrix should have the same dimensions.

Let see an example to understand how mathematical operations are performed on the matrix.

**Example 1**

`R <- matrix(c(5:16), nrow = 4,ncol=3) S <- matrix(c(1:12), nrow = 4,ncol=3) #Addition sum<-R+S print(sum) #Subtraction sub<-R-S print(sub) #Multiplication mul<-R*S print(mul) #Multiplication by constant mul1<-R*12 print(mul1) #Division div<-R/S print(div)`

**Output**

```
[,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,] 6 14 22
[2,] 8 16 24
[3,] 10 18 26
[4,] 12 20 28
[,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,] 4 4 4
[2,] 4 4 4
[3,] 4 4 4
[4,] 4 4 4
[,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,] 5 45 117
[2,] 12 60 140
[3,] 21 77 165
[4,] 32 96 192
[,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,] 60 108 156
[2,] 72 120 168
[3,] 84 132 180
[4,] 96 144 192
[,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,] 5.000000 1.800000 1.444444
[2,] 3.000000 1.666667 1.400000
[3,] 2.333333 1.571429 1.363636
[4,] 2.000000 1.500000 1.333333
```

**Applications of matrix**

In geology, Matrices takes surveys and plot graphs, statistics, and used to study in different fields.

Matrix is the representation method which helps in plotting common survey things.

In robotics and automation, Matrices have the topmost elements for the robot movements.

Matrices are mainly used in calculating the gross domestic products in Economics, and it also helps in calculating the capability of goods and products.

In computer-based application, matrices play a crucial role in the creation of realistic seeming motion.