Define Cryptographic algorithms?

Cryptosystems use a set of procedures known as cryptographic algorithms, or [ciphers], to encrypt and decrypt messages to secure communications among computer systems, devices and applications.

A cipher suite uses one algorithm for encryption, another algorithm for message authentication and another for key exchange. This process, embedded in protocols and written in software that runs on operating systems (OSes) and networked computer systems, involves:

  • public and private key generation for data encryption/decryption
  • digital signing and verification for [message authentication
    lgorithms create a fixed length of bits known as a [block cipher) with a secret key that the creator/sender uses to encipher data (encryption) and the receiver uses to decipher it. One example of symmetric-key cryptography is the Advanced Encryption Standard ([AES]. AES is a specification established in November 2001 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS 197) to protect sensitive information. The standard is mandated by the U.S. government and widely used in the private sector.

In June 2003, AES was approved by the U.S. government for classified information. It is a royalty-free specification implemented in software and hardware worldwide. AES is the successor to the Data Encryption Standard ([DES]and DES3. It uses longer key lengths – 128-bit, 192-bit, 256-bit – to prevent brute force and other attacks.