What is the password file and why it is needed?

The passwords of database users are saved in the database’s data dictionary. When a user tries to log into the database, the values in the database are compared to the user’s usernames and passwords. Only if the username and password match is the user granted database access. The data dictionary is kept in the database and is accessible as long as the database is up and running. The passwords for the administrators are likewise stored in the dictionary.

Until the database is locked, the data dictionary will be inaccessible. Because one of the administrator’s responsibilities is to restart a down database, there must be a means for them to log in even if the database is locked. The password file enters the picture at this point. A password file is a distinct operating system file from the database that is kept on a different disc. For users with SYSDBA or SYSOPER access, it saves their username and password. Administrators with specific privileges are authenticated using the password files while the database is unavailable.