Competitive pricing is the process of selecting strategic price points to best take advantage of a product or service based market relative to competition. Competitive pricing is generally used once a price for a product or service has reached a level of equilibrium.
Businesses have three options when setting the price for a good or service: set it below the competition, at the competition, or above the competition.
Above the competition pricing requires the business to create an environment that warrants the premium, such as generous payment terms or extra features. Rather than compete on price, the business must compete on quality if it hopes to charge a premium price.
A business may set the price below the market and potentially take a loss if the business believes that the customer will purchase additional products from their business once the customer is exposed to the other offerings. The profitability of the other products can then subsidize the economic loss incurred on the below-market priced product. This is also known as a loss leader strategy.
Lastly, a business can choose to charge the same price as its competitors or take the prevailing market price as given. Despite selling an equivalent product at an equivalent price, the business may still attempt to differentiate itself through marketing.
For a business to charge an amount above that of the competition, the business must differentiate the product from those created by competitors. For example, Apple employs the strategy of focusing on the creation of high-end products and ensuring the consumer market sees its products as unique or innovative. This strategy requires not only improving the product or service itself, but making sure customers are aware of the differences that justify the premium pricing, through marketing and branding.
A loss leader is a good or service being offered at a notable discount, at times resulting in a loss if the products are sold below cost. The technique looks to increase traffic to the business based on the low price of the aforementioned product. Once the potential customer enters the store environment, shifting to the role of customer once the decision to purchase the loss leader is made, the hope is to attract them to other store products that generate a profit. Not only can this attract new customers to a store, but it can also help a business move inventory that has become stagnant.
At times, loss leader prices cannot be officially published as a minimum advertised price has been set by the manufacturer. The practice is also forbidden in certain states.
Competitive Pricing and Price Matching Offers
When a company is unable to anticipate competitor price changes or is not equipped to make corresponding changes in a timely fashion, a retailer may offer to match advertised competitor prices. This allows the retailer to maintain a competitive price point for those who become aware of the competitor’s offer without having to officially change the price within the retailer’s point of sale system.
For example, in November 2014, Amazon projected price changes to approximately 80 million items in preparation for the holiday season. Other retailers, including Walmart and Best Buy, announced a price-matching program. This allowed customers of Walmart or Best Buy to receive a product at the lower price without risking customers taking their business to Amazon solely for pricing reasons.
- Competitive pricing is the process of selecting strategic price points to best take advantage of a product or service based market relative to competition.
- Competitive pricing is used more by businesses selling similar products, since services can vary from business to business, while the attributes of a product remain similar.
- Competitive pricing is generally used once a price for a product or service has reached a level of equilibrium.