Classification problems involve assigning a class label to input examples.
Binary classification tasks are those that have two classes. One decision is made for each example, either assigning it to one class or another. If modeled using probability, a single probability of the example being to one class is predicted, where the inverse is the probability for the second class, called a binomial probability distribution.
More than two classes can introduce a challenge. The techniques designed for two classes can be extended to multiple classes, and sometimes, this is straightforward.
- Multi-Class Classification : Assign one among more than class labels to a given input example.
Alternatively, the problem can be naturally partitioned into multiple binary classification tasks.
There are many ways this can be achieved.
For example, the classes can be grouped into multiple one-vs-rest prediction problems. A model can then be fit for each subproblem and typically the same algorithm type is used for each model. When a prediction is required for a new example, then the model that responds more strongly than the other models can assign a prediction. This is called a one-vs-rest (OvR) or one-vs-all (OvA) approach.
- OvR : A technique that splits a multi-class classification into one binary classification problem per class.
The multi-class classification problem can be divided into multiple pairs of classes, and a model fit on each. Again, a prediction for a new example can be chosen from the model that responds more strongly. This is referred to as one-vs-one (OvO).
- OvR : A technique that splits a multi-class classification into one binary classification problem per each pair of classes. This approach of partitioning a multi-class classification problem into multiple binary classification problems can be generalized. Each class can be mapped to a unique binary string for the class with arbitrarily length. One classifier can then be fit to predict each bit in the bit string, allowing an arbitrary number of classifiers to be used.
The bit string can then be mapped to the class label with the closest match. The additional bits act like error-correcting codes, improving the performance of the approach in some cases over simpler OvR and OvO methods. This approach is referred to as Error-Correcting Output Codes, ECOC.
- ECOC : A technique that splits a multi-class classification into an arbitrary number of binary classification problems.In each of these cases, multiple models are used, just like an ensemble. Predictions are also combined, like an ensemble method, although in a winner-take-all method rather than a vote or weighted sum. Technically, this is a combination method, but unlike most typical ensemble learning methods.
Unlike ensemble learning, these techniques are designed to explore the natural decomposition of the prediction problem and leverage binary classification problems that may not easily scale to multiple classes.
Whereas ensemble learning is not concerned with opening up new capabilities and is typically only focused on improved predictive performance over contributing models. With techniques like OvR, OvR, and ECOC, the contributing models cannot be used to address the prediction problem in isolation, by definition.