So-called black-box optimization algorithms are general optimization algorithms that can be applied to many different optimization problems and assume very little about the objective function.

Examples of black-box algorithms include the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, and particle swarm optimization.

The no free lunch theorem was proposed in an environment of the late 1990s where claims of one black-box optimization algorithm being better than another optimization algorithm were being made routinely. The theorem pushes back on this, indicating that there is no best optimization algorithm, that it is provably impossible.

The theorem does state that no optimization algorithm is any better than any other optimization algorithm, on average.

… known as the “no free lunch” theorem, sets a limit on how good a learner can be. The limit is pretty low: no learner can be better than random guessing!

— Page 63, The Master Algorithm, 2018.

The catch is that the application of algorithms does not assume anything about the problem. In fact, algorithms are applied to objective functions with no prior knowledge, even such as whether the objective function is minimizing or maximizing. And this is a hard constraint of the theorem.

We often have “*some*” knowledge about the objective function being optimized. In fact, if in practice we truly knew nothing about the objective function, we could not choose an optimization algorithm.

As elaborated by the no free lunch theorems of Wolpert and Macready, there is no reason to prefer one algorithm over another unless we make assumptions about the probability distribution over the space of possible objective functions.

— Page 6, Algorithms for Optimization, 2019.

The beginner practitioner in the field of optimization is counseled to learn and use as much about the problem as possible in the optimization algorithm.

The more we know and harness in the algorithms about the problem, the better tailored the technique is to the problem and the more likely the algorithm is expected to perform well on the problem. The no free lunch theorem supports this advice.

We don’t care about all possible worlds, only the one we live in. If we know something about the world and incorporate it into our learner, it now has an advantage over random guessing.

— Page 63, The Master Algorithm, 2018.

Additionally, the performance is averaged over all possible objective functions and all possible optimization algorithms. Whereas in practice, we are interested in a small subset of objective functions that may have a specific structure or form and algorithms tailored to those functions.

… we cannot emphasize enough that no claims whatsoever are being made in this paper concerning how well various search algorithms work in practice The focus of this paper is on what can be said a priori without any assumptions and from mathematical principles alone concerning the utility of a search algorithm.

— No Free Lunch Theorems For Optimization, 1997.

These implications lead some practitioners to note the limited practical value of the theorem.